The stakeholder engagement plan is used to understand stakeholder communication requirements and the level of stakeholder engagement in order to assess and adapt to the level of stakeholder participation in requirements activities.
What is "Stakeholder Register"?
The stakeholder register is used to identify stakeholders who can provide information on the requirements. It also captures requirements and expectations that stakeholders have for the project.
Do "Marketplace conditions" influence the Collect Requirements process?
Yes, it is an enterprise environmental factor
Do "organizational policies and procedures" influence the Collect Requirements process?
Yes, they are organizational process assets
During Collect Requirements process, expertise on which topics shall be considered?
Business analysis, Requirements analysis, Diagramming techniques, Conflict management, etc.
During Collect Requirements process, what data gathering techniques can be used?
Brainstorming, Interviews, Focus Groups, Surveys and Benchmarking
What is questionnaires and surveys?
Questionnaires and surveys are written sets of questions designed to quickly accumulate information from a large number of respondents
What is benchmarking?
Benchmarking involves comparing actual or planned products, processes, and practices to those of comparable organizations to identify best practices, generate ideas for improvement, and provide a basis for measuring performance.
What is an interview?
An interview is a formal or informal approach to elicit information from stakeholders by talking to them directly.
If you need to obtain confidential information, which data gathering may be performed?
If you need to obtain confidential information, which data gathering may be performed? Interview
If you need to generate multiple ideas, which data gathering may be performed?
If you need to generate multiple ideas, which data gathering may be performed? Brainstorming
If you need varied audiences and statistical analysis which data gatheriing technique may be appropriate?
Questionnaires / surveys
What is Unanimity?
A voting technique. A decision that is reached whereby everyone agrees on a single course of action.
What is Majority?
A voting technique. A decision that is reached with support obtained from more than 50% of the members of the group
What is Plurality?
A voting technique. A decision that is reached whereby the largest block in a group decides, even if a majority is not achieved.
What is Autocratic decision making?
One individual takes responsibility for making the decision for the group.
What is Multicriteria decision analysis?
Technique that uses a decision matrix to provide a systematic analytical approach for establishing criteria, such as risk levels, uncertainty, and valuation, to evaluate and rank many ideas
What is Affinity diagrams?
Affinity diagrams allow large numbers of ideas to be classified into groups for review and analysis.
What is mind mapping?
Mind mapping consolidates ideas created through individual brainstorming sessions into a single map to reflect commonality and differences in understanding and to generate new ideas.
What is Nominal group technique?
Enhances brainstorming with a voting process used
to rank the most useful ideas for further brainstorming or for prioritization
What is Observation/conversation?
Observation and conversation provide a direct way of viewing individuals in their environment and how they perform their jobs or tasks and carry out processes.
What is job shadowing?
Observation is also known as “job shadowing.” observer viewing a business
expert performing a job.
Stakeholders who use the product have difficulty or are reluctant to articulate their requirements. Which interpersonal skill shall be performed?
Stakeholders who use the product have difficulty or are reluctant to articulate their requirements. Which interpersonal skill shall be performed? Observation is used to uncover hidden requirements.
What is Joint application design/development (JAD)?
JAD sessions focus on bringing business subject matter experts and the development team together to gather requirements and improve the software development process
Give sample situations where facilitation skills are used?
Joint application design/development sessions, User stories, Quality function deployment (QFD) sessions
What is Quality function deployment (QFD)?
In the manufacturing industry, QFD is another facilitation technique that helps determine critical characteristics for new product development
What are user stories?
User stories are short, textual descriptions of required functionality, are often developed during a requirements workshop.
What information exist in an user story?
User stories describe the stakeholder role, who benefits from the feature (role), what the stakeholder needs to accomplish (goal), and the benefit to the stakeholder (motivation).
What is Context Diagram?
Context diagrams visually depict the product scope by showing a business system and how people and other systems interact with it
What is Prototyping?
Prototyping is a method of obtaining early feedback on requirements by providing a model of the expected product before actually building it.
Give examples for prototypes
Examples of prototypes are small-scale products, computer generated 2D and 3D models, mock-ups, or simulations.
What is Storyboarding?
Storyboarding is a prototyping technique showing sequence or navigation through a series of images or illustrations.
Before being baselined, requirements need to …
… be measurable and testable, traceable, complete, consistent, and acceptable to key stakeholders.
What is Business requirements?
Business requirements describe business issues or opportunities, and reasons why a project has been undertaken
What is Stakeholder requirements?
Stakeholder requirements. These describe needs of a stakeholder or stakeholder group.
What is Solution requirements?
Solution requirements. These describe features, functions, and characteristics of the product, service, or result that will meet the business and stakeholder requirements
What are the 2 solution requirement groups?
Functional and nonfunctional requirements
What is functional requirements?
Functional requirements. Functional requirements describe the behaviors of the product.
Give examples for functional requirements
Examples include actions, processes, data, and interactions that the product should execute
What is Nonfunctional requirements?
Nonfunctional requirements supplement functional requirements and describe the environmental conditions or qualities required for the product to be effective.
Give examples for nonfunctional requirements
Examples include: reliability, security, performance, safety, level of service, supportability, retention/purge, etc.
What are Transition and readiness requirements?
These describe temporary capabilities, such as data conversion and training requirements, needed to transition from the current as-is state to the desired future state.
What is Project requirements?
These describe the actions, processes, or other conditions the project needs to meet.
Give examples for project requirements
Examples include milestone dates, contractual obligations, constraints, etc.
What is quality requirements?
Quality requirements. These capture any condition or criteria needed to validate the successful completion of a project deliverable or fulfillment of other project requirements.
Give examples for quality requirements
Examples include tests, certifications, validations, etc.
What is the requirements traceability matrix ?
The requirements traceability matrix is a grid that links product requirements from their origin to the deliverables that satisfy them.
What is the purpose of the requirements traceability matrix ?
It helps ensure that each requirement adds business value by linking it to the business and project objectives.
The requirements traceability matrix include …
Business needs, opportunities, goals, and objectives;
Project scope and WBS deliverables;
Test strategy and test scenarios; and
High-level requirements to more detailed requirements.
What is "Define Scope" process?
Define Scope is the process of developing a detailed description of the project and product.
What are the key benefits of "Define Scope" process?
.1 Project charter
.2 Project management plan
• Scope management plan
.3 Project documents
• Assumption log
• Risk register
.4 Enterprise environmental
.5 Organizational process assets
What are the tools and techniques of "Define Scope" process?
.1 Expert judgment
.2 Data analysis
• Alternatives analysis
.3 Decision making
• Multicriteria decision analysis
.4 Interpersonal and team skills
.5 Product analysis
It is abbreviation of "Work breakdown Structure". The WBS is a hierarchical decomposition of the total scope of work
What is work package?
The work package is the work defined at the lowest level of the WBS
What is the use of work package?
Cost and duration can be estimated and managed for a work package.
Which document you should refer for creating WBS from the project scope statement?
Scope management plan
What is project scope statement?
The project scope statement describes the work that will be performed and the work that is excluded.
What environmental factors can influence the "Create WBS" process?
Industry-specific WBS standards that are relevant to the nature of the project.
What is the organizational process asset that can influence "Create WBS" process?
Policies, procedures, and templates for the WBS
What is Decomposition?
Decomposition is a technique used for dividing and subdividing the project scope and project deliverables into smaller, more manageable parts.
What effects the level of decomposition?
The level of decomposition is often guided by the degree of control needed to
effectively manage the project
What effects level of detail for work packages?
The level of detail for work packages will vary with the size and complexity of the project
Decomposition to work packages occurs of which activities?
Identifying and analyzing the deliverables and related work,
Structuring and organizing the WBS,
Decomposing the upper WBS levels into lower-level detailed components,
Developing and assigning identification codes to the WBS components, and
Verifying that the degree of decomposition of the deliverables is appropriate.
What are the WBS creation approaches?
The top-down approach: the use of organization-specific guidelines, and the use of WBS templates.
A bottom-up approach: can be used to group subcomponents.
If an agile approach is used, epics can be decomposed into …
If an agile approach is used, epics can be decomposed into user stories
What is the benefit of decomposing work in details?
As the work is decomposed to greater levels of detail, the ability to plan, manage, and control the work is enhanced.
What are the drawbacks of excessive decomposition?
Can lead to nonproductive management effort, inefficient use of resources, decreased efficiency in performing the work, and difficulty aggregating data over different levels of the WBS
What is rolling wave planning?
The project management team usually waits until the deliverable or subcomponent is agreed on, so the details of the WBS can be developed.
The WBS represents …
… all product and project work
What is 100 percent rule?
The total of the work at the lowest levels should roll up to the higher levels so that nothing is left out and no extra work is performed
What are the scope baseline components?
Project Scope Statement; WBS; Work Package; Planning Package
Scope baseline is component of the …
… project management plan
What is the approved version of a scope statement, WBS, and its associated WBS dictionary?
What is the approved version of a scope statement, WBS, and its associat...
Descending level of the WBS represents ….. detailed definition of the project work.
Descending level of the WBS represents more detailed definition of the p...
What is control account?
A control account is a management control point where scope, budget, and...
A control account has at least 2 work packages. True or False?
True. A control account has two or more work packages.
A work package can be associated with many control accounts. True or False?
False. Each work package is associated with a single control account.
What is a planning package?
A planning package is a work breakdown structure component below the con...
A control account may include one or more planning packages. True or False?
A control account may include one or more planning packages. True or Fal...
The WBS dictionary is a document that supports …
… the WBS
What information may exist in WBS Dictionary?
Code of account identifier, Description of work, Schedule activities, Re...
What is "Validate Scope" process?
Validate Scope is the process of formalizing acceptance of the completed...
What are the key benefits of "Validate Scope" process?
The key benefit of this process is that it brings objectivity to the acc...
What are the inputs of "Validate Scope" process?
.1 Project management plan
• Scope management plan
• Requirements mana...
What are the tools and techniques of "Validate Scope" process?
.2 Decision making
What are the outputs of "Validate Scope" process?
.1 Accepted deliverables
.2 Work performance information
.3 Change req...
"Verified Deliverables" is input for "Validate Scope". Which process creates this "Verified Deliverables" output?
"Verified Deliverables" is input for "Validate Scope". Control Quality p...
Work performance data can include …
… the degree of compliance with requirements, number of nonconformities,...
What is the purpose of inspection?
Determine whether work and deliverables meet requirements and product ac...
Inspections sysnonyms are
Inspections are sometimes called reviews, product reviews, and walkthrou...
Inspection includes activities such as …
… measuring, examining, and validating
What is accepted Deliverables?
Deliverables that meet the acceptance criteria are formally signed off a...
Give example for Work Performance Information during "Validate Scope" process
Project progress, such as which deliverables have been accepted and whic...
Give a reason for change request during "Validate Scope" process
Completed deliverables that have not been formally accepted, may require...
The lessons learned register may be updated with which information during "Validate Scope" process?
Challenges encountered and how they could have been avoided; approaches ...
What is "Control Scope" process?
Control Scope is the process of monitoring the status of the project and...
What are the key benefits of "Control Scope" process?
.1 Project management plan
• Scope management plan
• Requirements mana...
What are the tools and techniques of "Control Scope" process?
.1 Data analysis
• Variance analysis
• Trend analysis
What are the outputs of "Control Scope" process?
.1 Work performance information
.2 Change requests
.3 Project manageme...
What is scope creep?
The uncontrolled expansion to product or project scope without adjustmen...