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What is Project Scope Management?

Project Scope Management includes the processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work required to complete the project successfully

Managing the project scope is primarily concerned with …

… defining and controlling what is and is not included in the project.

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What are the Project Scope Management processes?

5.1 Plan Scope Management 5.2 Collect Requirements 5.3 Define Scope 5.4 Create WBS 5.5 Validate Scope 5.6 Control Scope

What is Product Scope?

The features and functions that characterize a product, service, or result

 

What is Project Scope?

The work performed to deliver a product, service, or result with the specified features and functions. The term “project scope” is sometimes viewed as including product scope.

What are the 2 types of project life cycle?

Predictive and Adaptive

 

How is Scope managed in predictive life cycle?

In a predictive life cycle, the project deliverables are defined at the beginning of the project and any changes to the scope are progressively managed

How is Scope managed in adaptive life cycle?

In an adaptive or agile life cycle, the deliverables are developed over multiple iterations where a detailed scope is defined and approved for each iteration when it begins

 

Which is close to Agile: Adaptive life cycle or Predictive life cycle?

Which is close to Agile: Adaptive life cycle or Predictive life cycle? Adaptive life cycle

If high levels of change is expected on the scope, which project life cycle should be selected?

Projects with adaptive life cycles are intended to respond to high levels of change.

 

In which project life cycle, set of requirements and work to be performed is referred as a product backlog?

In which project life cycle, set of requirements and work to be performed is referred as a product backlog? Adaptive life cycle

Which project life cycle, the sponsor and customer shall continuously engage with the project_

Adaptive life cycle

 

In Adaptive Life Cycle, Validate Scope process is repeated …

… for each iteration

In Predictive Life Cycle, Validate Scope process occurs …

… with each deliverable or phase review

 

Completion of the project scope is measured against …

… the project management plan

Completion of the product scope is measured against …

… the product requirements.

 

The verified deliverables obtained from the Control Quality process are an input to which process?

The verified deliverables obtained from the Control Quality process are an input to Validate Scope process.

Emerging practices for Project Scope Management focus on collaborating with …

… business analysis professionals

 

In a project, who is responsible for requirement related activities?

In a project, who is responsible for requirement related activities? A Business Analyst

In a project, who is responsible for ensuring requirement related activities are performed?

A Project Manager

 

The relationship between a project manager and a business analyst should be …

… a collaborative partnership

In agile approaches, the requirements constitute …

In agile approaches, the requirements constitute backlog.

 

What is "Plan Scope Management" process?

Plan Scope Management is the process of creating a scope management plan that documents how the project and product scope will be defined, validated, and controlled

What are the key benefits of "Plan Scope Management" process?

The key benefit of this process is that it provides guidance and direction on how scope will be managed throughout the project

 

What are the inputs of "Plan Scope Management" process?

.1 Project charter .2 Project management plan • Quality management plan • Project life cycle description • Development approach .3 Enterprise environmental factors .4 Organizational process assets

What are the tools and techniques of "Plan Scope Management" process?

.1 Expert judgment .2 Data analysis • Alternatives analysis .3 Meetings

 

What are the outputs of "Plan Scope Management" process?

.1 Scope management plan .2 Requirements management plan

What is Quality management plan?

The way the project and product scope will be managed can be influenced by how the organization’s quality policy, methodologies, and standards are implemented on the project.

 

What is project life cycle description?

The project life cycle determines the series of phases that a project passes through from its inception to the end of the project

What is development approach?

The development approach defines whether waterfall, iterative, adaptive, agile, or a hybrid development approach will be used

 

What are the enterprise environmental factors that can influence the Plan Scope Management process?

Organization’s culture, Infrastructure, Personnel administration, and Marketplace conditions.

What are the organizational process assets that can influence the Plan Scope Management process?

Policies and procedures, and Historical information and lessons learned repositories.

 

During Plan Scope Management Process, which expert judgment may be required?

Previous similar projects, and Information in the industry, discipline, and application area.

"Process for preparing a project scope statement" is part of which document?

Scope Management Plan

 

"Process for preparing a project scope statement" is part of which document?

Scope Management Plan

"Process for establishing how the scope baseline will be approved" is part of which document?

Scope Management Plan

 

"Process for specifying how formal acceptance of deliverables will be obtained" is part of which document?

"Process for specifying how formal acceptance of deliverables will be obtained" is part of which document? Scope Management Plan

"How requirements activities will be planned, tracked, and reported" is part of which document?

Requirements Management Plan

 

"Requirements prioritization process" is part of which document?

Requirements Management Plan

Requirements management plan is part of …

... Project Management Plan

 

"How changes will be initiated" is part of which document?

Requirements Management Plan

What is "Collect Requirements" process?

Collect Requirements is the process of determining, documenting, and managing stakeholder needs and requirements to meet objectives.

 

What are the key benefits of "Collect Requirements" process?

The key benefit of this process is that it provides the basis for defining the product scope and project scope.

What are the inputs of "Collect Requirements" process?

.1 Project charter .2 Project management plan • Scope management plan • Requirements management plan • Stakeholder engagement plan .3 Project documents • Assumption log • Lessons learned register • Stakeholder register .4 Business documents • Business case .5 Agreements .6 Enterprise environmental factors .7 Organizational process assets

 

What are the tools and techniques of "Collect Requirements" process?

.1 Expert judgment .2 Data gathering • Brainstorming • Interviews • Focus groups • Questionnaires and surveys • Benchmarking .3 Data analysis • Document analysis .4 Decision making • Voting • Multicriteria decision analysis .5 Data representation • Affinity diagrams • Mind mapping .6 Interpersonal and team skills • Nominal group technique • Observation/conversation • Facilitation .7 Context diagram .8 Prototypes

What are the outputs of "Collect Requirements" process?

.1 Requirements documentation .2 Requirements traceability matrix

 

What is "Stakeholder Engagement Plan"?

The stakeholder engagement plan is used to understand stakeholder communication requirements and the level of stakeholder engagement in order to assess and adapt to the level of stakeholder participation in requirements activities.

What is "Stakeholder Register"?

The stakeholder register is used to identify stakeholders who can provide information on the requirements. It also captures requirements and expectations that stakeholders have for the project.

 

Do "Marketplace conditions" influence the Collect Requirements process?

Yes, it is an enterprise environmental factor

Do "organizational policies and procedures" influence the Collect Requirements process?

Yes, they are organizational process assets

 

During Collect Requirements process, expertise on which topics shall be considered?

Business analysis, Requirements analysis, Diagramming techniques, Conflict management, etc.

During Collect Requirements process, what data gathering techniques can be used?

Brainstorming, Interviews, Focus Groups, Surveys and Benchmarking

 

What is questionnaires and surveys?

Questionnaires and surveys are written sets of questions designed to quickly accumulate information from a large number of respondents

What is benchmarking?

Benchmarking involves comparing actual or planned products, processes, and practices to those of comparable organizations to identify best practices, generate ideas for improvement, and provide a basis for measuring performance.

 

What is an interview?

An interview is a formal or informal approach to elicit information from stakeholders by talking to them directly.

If you need to obtain confidential information, which data gathering may be performed?

If you need to obtain confidential information, which data gathering may be performed? Interview

 

If you need to generate multiple ideas, which data gathering may be performed?

If you need to generate multiple ideas, which data gathering may be performed? Brainstorming

If you need varied audiences and statistical analysis which data gatheriing technique may be appropriate?

Questionnaires / surveys

 

What is Unanimity?

A voting technique. A decision that is reached whereby everyone agrees on a single course of action.

What is Majority?

A voting technique. A decision that is reached with support obtained from more than 50% of the members of the group

 

What is Plurality?

A voting technique. A decision that is reached whereby the largest block in a group decides, even if a majority is not achieved.

What is Autocratic decision making?

One individual takes responsibility for making the decision for the group.

 

What is Multicriteria decision analysis?

Technique that uses a decision matrix to provide a systematic analytical approach for establishing criteria, such as risk levels, uncertainty, and valuation, to evaluate and rank many ideas

What is Affinity diagrams?

Affinity diagrams allow large numbers of ideas to be classified into groups for review and analysis.

 

What is mind mapping?

Mind mapping consolidates ideas created through individual brainstorming sessions into a single map to reflect commonality and differences in understanding and to generate new ideas.

What is Nominal group technique?

Enhances brainstorming with a voting process used to rank the most useful ideas for further brainstorming or for prioritization

 

What is Observation/conversation?

Observation and conversation provide a direct way of viewing individuals in their environment and how they perform their jobs or tasks and carry out processes.

What is job shadowing?

Observation is also known as “job shadowing.” observer viewing a business expert performing a job.

 

Stakeholders who use the product have difficulty or are reluctant to articulate their requirements. Which interpersonal skill shall be performed?

Stakeholders who use the product have difficulty or are reluctant to articulate their requirements. Which interpersonal skill shall be performed? Observation is used to uncover hidden requirements.

What is Joint application design/development (JAD)?

JAD sessions focus on bringing business subject matter experts and the development team together to gather requirements and improve the software development process

 

Give sample situations where facilitation skills are used?

Joint application design/development sessions, User stories, Quality function deployment (QFD) sessions

What is Quality function deployment (QFD)?

In the manufacturing industry, QFD is another facilitation technique that helps determine critical characteristics for new product development

 

What are user stories?

User stories are short, textual descriptions of required functionality, are often developed during a requirements workshop.

What information exist in an user story?

User stories describe the stakeholder role, who benefits from the feature (role), what the stakeholder needs to accomplish (goal), and the benefit to the stakeholder (motivation).

 

What is Context Diagram?

Context diagrams visually depict the product scope by showing a business system and how people and other systems interact with it

What is Prototyping?

Prototyping is a method of obtaining early feedback on requirements by providing a model of the expected product before actually building it.

 

Give examples for prototypes

Examples of prototypes are small-scale products, computer generated 2D and 3D models, mock-ups, or simulations.

What is Storyboarding?

Storyboarding is a prototyping technique showing sequence or navigation through a series of images or illustrations.

 

Before being baselined, requirements need to …

… be measurable and testable, traceable, complete, consistent, and acceptable to key stakeholders.

What is Business requirements?

Business requirements describe business issues or opportunities, and reasons why a project has been undertaken

 

What is Stakeholder requirements?

Stakeholder requirements. These describe needs of a stakeholder or stakeholder group.

What is Solution requirements?

Solution requirements. These describe features, functions, and characteristics of the product, service, or result that will meet the business and stakeholder requirements

 

What are the 2 solution requirement groups?

Functional and nonfunctional requirements

What is functional requirements?

Functional requirements. Functional requirements describe the behaviors of the product.

 

Give examples for functional requirements

Examples include actions, processes, data, and interactions that the product should execute

What is Nonfunctional requirements?

Nonfunctional requirements supplement functional requirements and describe the environmental conditions or qualities required for the product to be effective.

 

Give examples for nonfunctional requirements

Examples include: reliability, security, performance, safety, level of service, supportability, retention/purge, etc.

What are Transition and readiness requirements?

These describe temporary capabilities, such as data conversion and training requirements, needed to transition from the current as-is state to the desired future state.

 

What is Project requirements?

These describe the actions, processes, or other conditions the project needs to meet.

Give examples for project requirements

Examples include milestone dates, contractual obligations, constraints, etc.

 

What is quality requirements?

Quality requirements. These capture any condition or criteria needed to validate the successful completion of a project deliverable or fulfillment of other project requirements.

Give examples for quality requirements

Examples include tests, certifications, validations, etc.

 

What is the requirements traceability matrix ?

The requirements traceability matrix is a grid that links product requirements from their origin to the deliverables that satisfy them.

What is the purpose of the requirements traceability matrix ?

It helps ensure that each requirement adds business value by linking it to the business and project objectives.

 

The requirements traceability matrix include …

Business needs, opportunities, goals, and objectives; Project objectives; Project scope and WBS deliverables; Product design; Product development; Test strategy and test scenarios; and High-level requirements to more detailed requirements.

What is "Define Scope" process?

Define Scope is the process of developing a detailed description of the project and product.

 

What are the key benefits of "Define Scope" process?

.1 Project charter .2 Project management plan • Scope management plan .3 Project documents • Assumption log • Requirements documentation • Risk register .4 Enterprise environmental factors .5 Organizational process assets

What are the tools and techniques of "Define Scope" process?

.1 Expert judgment .2 Data analysis • Alternatives analysis .3 Decision making • Multicriteria decision analysis .4 Interpersonal and team skills • Facilitation .5 Product analysis

 

What are the outputs of "Define Scope" process?

.1 Project scope statement .2 Project documents updates • Assumption log • Requirements documentation • Requirements traceability matrix • Stakeholder register

What is Product analysis?

To analyze the objectives and description of product stated by customer or sponsor and turn them to tangible deliverables.

 

Examples of product analysis techniques

Product breakdown, Requirements analysis, Systems analysis, Systems engineering, Value analysis, and Value engineering.

What is project scope statement?

The project scope statement is the description of the project scope, major deliverables, assumptions, and constraints.

 

The detailed project scope statement includes …

Product scope description; Deliverables; Acceptance Criteria; Project Exclusions

What is Acceptance Criteria?

A set of conditions that is required to be met before deliverables are accepted.

 

What is Project Exclusions?

Identifies what is excluded from the project, helps manage stakeholders’ expectations and can reduce scope creep.

Which document has detailed description of the scope components?

Project Scope Statement

 

Which project documents are updated during "Define Scope" process?

Assumption log; Requirements documentation; Requirements traceability matrix; Stakeholder register

What is a constraint?

Factors that limit the team’s options.

 

Give examples for a project constraint

– “project must be completed in 6 months” – “existing system must not be interrupted from 12 am to 6

What is an assumption?

Things that are assumed to be true, but may not be true

 

Give examples for project assumptions

– “A dedicated personnel from marketing will support the team.” – “Bugfix effort for each screen will not exceed 20% of the development effort for same screen.”

What is "Create WBS" process?

Create WBS is the process of subdividing project deliverables and project work into smaller, more manageable components.

 

What are the key benefits of "Create WBS" process?

The key benefit of this process is that it provides a framework of what has to be delivered. This process is performed once or at predefined points in the project.

What are the inputs of "Create WBS" process?

.1 Project management plan • Scope management plan .2 Project documents • Project scope statement • Requirements documentation .3 Enterprise environmental factors .4 Organizational process assets

 

What are the tools and techniques of "Create WBS" process?

.1 Expert judgment .2 Decomposition

What are the outputs of "Create WBS" process?

.1 Scope baseline .2 Project documents updates • Assumption log • Requirements documentation

 

What is WBS?

It is abbreviation of "Work breakdown Structure". The WBS is a hierarchical decomposition of the total scope of work

What is work package?

The work package is the work defined at the lowest level of the WBS

 

What is the use of work package?

Cost and duration can be estimated and managed for a work package.

Which document you should refer for creating WBS from the project scope statement?

Scope management plan

 

What is project scope statement?

The project scope statement describes the work that will be performed and the work that is excluded.

What environmental factors can influence the "Create WBS" process?

Industry-specific WBS standards that are relevant to the nature of the project.

 

What is the organizational process asset that can influence "Create WBS" process?

Policies, procedures, and templates for the WBS

What is Decomposition?

Decomposition is a technique used for dividing and subdividing the project scope and project deliverables into smaller, more manageable parts.

 

What effects the level of decomposition?

The level of decomposition is often guided by the degree of control needed to effectively manage the project

What effects level of detail for work packages?

The level of detail for work packages will vary with the size and complexity of the project

 

Decomposition to work packages occurs of which activities?

Identifying and analyzing the deliverables and related work, Structuring and organizing the WBS, Decomposing the upper WBS levels into lower-level detailed components, Developing and assigning identification codes to the WBS components, and Verifying that the degree of decomposition of the deliverables is appropriate.

What are the WBS creation approaches?

The top-down approach: the use of organization-specific guidelines, and the use of WBS templates. A bottom-up approach: can be used to group subcomponents.

 

If an agile approach is used, epics can be decomposed into …

If an agile approach is used, epics can be decomposed into user stories

What is the benefit of decomposing work in details?

As the work is decomposed to greater levels of detail, the ability to plan, manage, and control the work is enhanced.

 

What are the drawbacks of excessive decomposition?

Can lead to nonproductive management effort, inefficient use of resources, decreased efficiency in performing the work, and difficulty aggregating data over different levels of the WBS

What is rolling wave planning?

The project management team usually waits until the deliverable or subcomponent is agreed on, so the details of the WBS can be developed.

 

The WBS represents …

… all product and project work

What is 100 percent rule?

The total of the work at the lowest levels should roll up to the higher levels so that nothing is left out and no extra work is performed

 

What are the scope baseline components?

Project Scope Statement; WBS; Work Package; Planning Package

Scope baseline is component of the …

… project management plan

 

What is the approved version of a scope statement, WBS, and its associated WBS dictionary?

What is the approved version of a scope statement, WBS, and its associat...

Descending level of the WBS represents ….. detailed definition of the project work.

Descending level of the WBS represents more detailed definition of the p...

 

What is control account?

A control account is a management control point where scope, budget, and...

A control account has at least 2 work packages. True or False?

True. A control account has two or more work packages.

 

A work package can be associated with many control accounts. True or False?

False. Each work package is associated with a single control account.

What is a planning package?

A planning package is a work breakdown structure component below the con...

 

A control account may include one or more planning packages. True or False?

A control account may include one or more planning packages. True or Fal...

The WBS dictionary is a document that supports …

… the WBS

 

What information may exist in WBS Dictionary?

Code of account identifier, Description of work, Schedule activities, Re...

What is "Validate Scope" process?

Validate Scope is the process of formalizing acceptance of the completed...

 

What are the key benefits of "Validate Scope" process?

The key benefit of this process is that it brings objectivity to the acc...

What are the inputs of "Validate Scope" process?

.1 Project management plan • Scope management plan • Requirements mana...

 

What are the tools and techniques of "Validate Scope" process?

.1 Inspection .2 Decision making • Voting

What are the outputs of "Validate Scope" process?

.1 Accepted deliverables .2 Work performance information .3 Change req...

 

"Verified Deliverables" is input for "Validate Scope". Which process creates this "Verified Deliverables" output?

"Verified Deliverables" is input for "Validate Scope". Control Quality p...

Work performance data can include …

… the degree of compliance with requirements, number of nonconformities,...

 

What is the purpose of inspection?

Determine whether work and deliverables meet requirements and product ac...

Inspections sysnonyms are

Inspections are sometimes called reviews, product reviews, and walkthrou...

 

Inspection includes activities such as …

… measuring, examining, and validating

What is accepted Deliverables?

Deliverables that meet the acceptance criteria are formally signed off a...

 

Give example for Work Performance Information during "Validate Scope" process

Project progress, such as which deliverables have been accepted and whic...

Give a reason for change request during "Validate Scope" process

Completed deliverables that have not been formally accepted, may require...

 

The lessons learned register may be updated with which information during "Validate Scope" process?

Challenges encountered and how they could have been avoided; approaches ...

What is "Control Scope" process?

Control Scope is the process of monitoring the status of the project and...

 

What are the key benefits of "Control Scope" process?

.1 Project management plan • Scope management plan • Requirements mana...

What are the tools and techniques of "Control Scope" process?

.1 Data analysis • Variance analysis • Trend analysis

 

What are the outputs of "Control Scope" process?

.1 Work performance information .2 Change requests .3 Project manageme...

What is scope creep?

The uncontrolled expansion to product or project scope without adjustmen...