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What is Project Quality Management?

Project Quality Management includes the processes for incorporating the organization’s quality policy regarding planning, managing, and controlling project and product quality requirements in order to meet stakeholders’ objectives

What are the Project Quality Management processes?

"8.1 Plan Quality Management 8.2 Manage Quality 8.3 Control Quality"

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The Plan Quality Management process is concerned with …

The Plan Quality Management process is concerned with the quality that the work needs to have.

Manage Quality is concerned with …

managing the quality processes throughout the project.

 

Control Quality is concerned with …

comparing the work results with the quality requirements to ensure the result is acceptable

What are the two outputs specific to the Project Quality Management Knowledge Area?

verified deliverables and quality reports.

 

Project Quality Management addresses …

the management of the project and the deliverables of the project

Quality as a delivered performance or result is …

“the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfill requirements” (ISO 9000)

 

Grade as a design intent is …

a category assigned to deliverables having the same functional use but different technical characteristics

Who are responsible for delivering the required levels of both quality and grade?

The project manager and the project team

 

What is the term used for "keeping errors out of the process"?

What is the term used for "keeping errors out of the process"? Prevention

What is the term used for "the result is rated on a continuous scale that measures the degree of conformity"?

What is the term used for "the result is rated on a continuous scale that measures the degree of conformity"? Variable sampling

 

What is the term used for "specified range of acceptable results"?

What is the term used for "specified range of acceptable results"? Tolerances

What is the term used for "keeping errors out of the hands of the customer"?

What is the term used for "keeping errors out of the hands of the customer"?Inspection

 

What is precision?

Precision is a measure of exactness. For example 1.000 is more precise than 1.00

What is accuracy?

Accuracy is an assessment of correctness. E.g., if you aim to produce a 10.00 cm sticks, 9.98 cm stick is more accurate than 10.03 cm stick.

 

What is 80/20 rule?

80/20 rule is 80% of the problems are caused by 20% of the root causes

80/20 is also known as ...

“fitness for use”

 

what is Gold plating?

Gold plating: giving extras to customer. (higher functionality,better quality)

What is Kaizen?

Continuous Improvement (Kaizen): looking for small improvements continuously.

 

What is JIT(Just In Time) Concept of Quality Management?

Having materials/products whenever it is needed. Reduces stock costs.

What are the impacts of poor quality?

Increased costs (due to rework); Low morale; Low customer satisfaction; Increased risk; Rework; Schedule delays

 

"Find existing standards and requirements" belongs to which Quality Management Process?

"Find existing standards and requirements" belongs to which Quality Management Process? Plan Quality Management

"Create additional project-specific standards" belongs to which Quality Management Process?

"Create additional project-specific standards" belongs to which Quality Management Process? Plan Quality Management

"Determine what work you will do to meet the standards" belongs to which Quality Management Process?

"Determine what work you will do to meet the standards" belongs to which Quality Management Process? Plan Quality Management

"Determine how you will measure" belongs to which Quality Management Process?

"Determine how you will measure" belongs to which Quality Management Process? Plan Quality Management

"Balance the needs of quality, scope, etc." belongs to which Quality Management Process?

"Balance the needs of quality, scope, etc." belongs to which Quality Management Process? Plan Quality Management

"Create a Quality Management Plan" belongs to which Quality Management Process?

"Create a Quality Management Plan" belongs to which Quality Management Process? Plan Quality Management

"Use measurements from control quality" belongs to which Quality Management Process?

"Use measurements from control quality" belongs to which Quality Management Process? Manage Quality

"Perform continuous improvement" belongs to which Quality Management Process?

"Perform continuous improvement" belongs to which Quality Management Process? Manage Quality

"Quality audit" belongs to which Quality Management Process?

"Quality audit" belongs to which Quality Management Process? Manage Quality

"Find good practices" belongs to which Quality Management Process?

"Find good practices" belongs to which Quality Management Process? Manage Quality

"Share good practices with others in the organization." belongs to which Quality Management Process?

"Share good practices with others in the organization." belongs to which Quality Management Process? Manage Quality

"Measure quality" belongs to which Quality Management Process?

"Measure quality" belongs to which Quality Management Process? Control Quality

"Identify quality improvements" belongs to which Quality Management Process?

"Identify quality improvements" belongs to which Quality Management Process? Control Quality

"Validate deliverables" belongs to which Quality Management Process?

"Validate deliverables" belongs to which Quality Management Process? Control Quality

"Complete checklists" belongs to which Quality Management Process?

"Complete checklists" belongs to which Quality Management Process? Control Quality

"Submit change requests" belongs to which Quality Management Process?

"Submit change requests" belongs to which Quality Management Process? Control Quality

"Update lessons learned" belongs to which Quality Management Process?

"Update lessons learned" belongs to which Quality Management Process? Control Quality

"What is quality? How will we ensure?" questions are addressed to which Quality Management Process?

"What is quality? How will we ensure?" questions are addressed to which Quality Management Process? Plan Quality Management

"Are we following standards?" questions are addressed to which Quality Management Process?

"Are we following standards?" questions are addressed to which Quality Management Process? Manage Quality

"Are we meeting standards?" questions are addressed to which Quality Management Process?

"Are we meeting standards?" questions are addressed to which Quality Management Process? Control Quality

 

The cost of quality (COQ) includes …

all investment in preventing nonconformance to requirements, and rework

What are the 2 categories of failure costs?

internal (found by the project team) and external (found by the customer).

 

What is the synonym for "Failure costs"?

Cost of Poor Quality

Decisions about the COQ over a product’s life cycle are often the concern of ...

program management, portfolio management, the PMO, or operations

 

What is the most expensive approach of quality management?

Let the customer find the defects.

What happens if you let the customer find the defects?

This can lead to warranty issues, recalls, loss of reputation, and rework costs.

Understand, evaluate, define, and manage requirements so that customer expectations are met. What do you get by doing these?

Understand, evaluate, define, and manage requirements so that customer expectations are met. What do you get by doing these? Customer Satisfaction

….. call for frequent quality and review steps built in throughout the project rather than toward the end of the project.

Agile methods call for frequent quality and review steps built in throughout the project rather than toward the end of the project.

….. regularly check on the effectiveness of the quality processes

Recurring retrospectives regularly check on the effectiveness of the quality processes

What is the Plan Quality Management process?

It is the process of identifying quality requirements for the deliverables, and documenting how the project will demonstrate compliance with quality requirements and/or standards.

What are the control quality costs if the defects are detected and corrected before delivering the product/service to customers?

Appraisal costs and internal failure costs.

What are the key benefits of " Plan Quality Management" process?

The key benefit of this process is that it provides guidance and direction on how quality will be managed and verified throughout the project

What are the inputs of "Plan Quality Management" process?

.1 Project charter .2 Project management plan .3 Project documents .4 Enterprise environmental factors .5 Organizational process assets

What are the tools and techniques of "Plan Quality Management" process?

.1 Expert judgment .2 Data gathering .3 Data analysis .4 Decision making .5 Data representation .6 Test and inspection planning .7 Meetings

What are the outputs of "Plan Quality Management" process?

.1 Quality management plan .2 Quality metrics .3 Project management plan updates .4 Project documents updates

What are the project management plan components those influence the "Plan Quality Management" process?

Requirements management plan; Risk Mgt Plan; Stakeholder Engagement Plan; Scope baseline

What are the project documents which influence the "Plan Quality Management" process?

Assumption log; Requirements documentation; Requirements traceability matrix; Risk register; Stakeholder register

What are the data gathering techniques which can be used for "Plan Quality Management" process?

Benchmarking; Brainstorming; Interviews

What are the Data analysis techniques which can be used for "Plan Quality Management" process?

Cost-benefit analysis; Cost of Quality; Decision Making; Data Representation; Test and Inspection Planning; Meetings

What are the Checksheets (Tally Sheets)?

Enables effective collection of useful data about a potential quality problem.

What is Pareto Diagrams (Pareto Charts)?

Special form of vertical bar chart and are used to identify the root cause of the most frequent problems that make the greatest impact on quality

Scatter diagrams are useful for ….

tracking two variables to see if they are related. Positive, negative or zero correlation

What is cost-benefit analysis?

A cost-benefit analysis is a financial analysis tool used to estimate the strengths and weaknesses of alternatives in order to determine the best alternative in terms of benefits provided.

What are Prevention costs?

Costs related to the prevention of poor quality in the products, deliverables, or services of the specific project.

What are Appraisal costs?

Costs related to evaluating, measuring, auditing, and testing the products, deliverables, or services of the specific project.

What are Prevention costs?

Costs related to nonconformance of the products, deliverables, or services to the needs or expectations of the stakeholders project.

Money sent during the project to avoid failures is ….

Cost of Conformance

Money sent during the project to avoid failures is ….

Money sent during and after the project because of failures is Cost of NonConformance

What are the activities of Prevention Costs (Build a quality product)?

• Training • Document processes • Equipment • Time to do it right

What are the activities of What are the activities of Appraisal Costs Assess the quality)?Costs (Build a quality product)?

• Testing • Destructive testing loss • Inspections

What are the activities of Internal Failure Costs (Failures found by the project)?

• Rework • Scrap

What are the activities of External Failure Costs (Failures found by the customers)?

• Liabilities • Warranty work • Lost business

When flowcharts are used to represent the steps in a process, they are sometimes called ...

When flowcharts are used to represent the steps in a process, they are sometimes called process flows or process flow diagrams

What are Logical Data Model?

Logical data models are a visual representation of an organization’s data, described in business language and independent of any specific technology.

What are the Matrix Diagrams?

Matrix diagrams help find the strength of relationships among different factors, causes, and objectives that exist between the rows and columns that form the matrix.

What is mind mapping?

Mind mapping is a diagrammatic method used to visually organizing information.

The suppliers, inputs, process, outputs, customers (SIPOC) diagram defines …

… the scope of work for a team and identifies at a high level the potential gaps (deficiencies) between what a process expects from its suppliers and what customers expect from the process.

What is the quality management plan?

It describes how applicable policies, procedures, and guidelines will be implemented to achieve the quality objectives

The quality management plan is a component of …

the project management plan

The quality management plan components are …

Quality Standards, objectives, roles, quality control and management activities

A quality metric specifically describes …

A quality metric specifically describes a project or product attribute and how the Control Quality process will verify compliance to it.

Give examples for Quality Metrics

percentage of tasks completed on time, cost performance measured by CPI, failure rate, number of defects identified per day, total downtime per month, errors found per line of code, customer satisfaction scores, and percentage of requirements covered by the test plan as a measure of test coverage.

What is the "Manage Quality" process?

Manage Quality is the process of translating the quality management plan into executable quality activities that incorporate the organization’s quality policies into the project.

What are the benefits of "Manage Quality" process?

The key benefits of this process are that it increases the probability of meeting the quality objectives as well as identifying ineffective processes and causes of poor quality.

What are the inputs of "Manage Quality" process?

.1 Project management plan .2 Project documents .3 Organizational process assets

What are the tools and techniques of "Manage Quality" process?

.1 Data gathering .2 Data analysis .3 Decision making .4 Data representation .5 Audits .6 Design for X .7 Problem solving .8 Quality improvement methods

What are the outputs of "Manage Quality" process?

.1 Quality reports .2 Test and evaluation documents .3 Change requests .4 Project management plan updates .5 Project documents updates

Manage Quality is sometimes called …

Manage Quality is sometimes called quality assurance,

Manage Quality work will fall under the …..work category in the cost of quality framework.

Manage Quality work will fall under the conformance work category in the cost of quality framework.

Quality control measurements are used to analyze and evaluate the quality of the …

Quality control measurements are used to analyze and evaluate the quality of the processes and deliverables

Give examples for Quality templates

check sheets, traceability matrix, test plans, test documents

What is Root Cuse Analysis (RCA)?

Root cause analysis is an analytical technique used to determine the basic underlying reason that causes a variance, defect, or risk.

Every variance, defect, or risk have a unique root cause. True or False?

False. A root cause may underlie more than one variance, defect, or risk.

What data representation techniques can be used for "Manage Quality" process?

Affinity Diagrams, Cause and Effect Diagrams, Flowcharts, Histograms, Matrix Diagrams, Scatter Diagrams

Cause-and-effect diagrams are also known as …

Cause-and-effect diagrams are also known as fishbone diagrams, why-why diagrams, or Ishikawa diagrams.

Cause-and-effect diagrams help to identify …

Cause-and-effect diagrams help to identify the main or root cause of problem.

What is audit?

An audit is a structured, independent process used to determine if project activities comply with organizational and project policies, processes, and procedures

Who conducts quality audits?

A quality audit is usually conducted by a team external to the project, such as audit department, PMO or an external auditor

Identifying all good and best practices being implemented" is objective of ….

Identifying all good and best practices being implemented" is objective of Quality Audit

"Identifying all nonconformity, gaps, and shortcomings" is objective of …

"Identifying all nonconformity, gaps, and shortcomings" is objective of Quality Audit

What is Design For X(DfX)?

Design for X (DfX) is a set of technical guidelines that may be applied during the design of a product for the optimization of a specific aspect (X) of the design.

What are the different aspects of product development?

reliability, deployment, assembly, manufacturing, cost, service, usability, safety, and quality

What are two of the common quality improvement tools used to analyze and evaluate opportunities for improvement?

Plan-do-check-act and Six Sigma

The information presented in the quality reports may include ….

The information presented in the quality reports may include all quality management issues escalated by the team; recommendations for process, project, and product improvements; corrective actions recommendations

What is Mutual Exclusivity?

two events are mutually exclusive if they cannot occur in a single trial.

Give an example for Mutual Exclusivity

E.g. A coin toss cannot result head & tail at the same time.

What is probability?

Likelihood of something to occur.

Give an example for Probability.

E.g. probability of turning head in a coin toss is 50% (or 0.50)

What is Normal Distribution?

Bell curve used to measure variations

What is Statistical Independence?

Probability of one event does not affect the probability of another event.

Give example for Statistical Independence.

E.g. probability of turning “head” on a coin toss is statistically independent from the probability of turning “tail” on next toss.

What is 3 sigma?

3 Sigma refers 2700 items out of 1 million (0.27%) can be faulty

What is 6 sigma?

6 Sigma refers 1.5 items out of 1 million (0.00015%) can be faulty

What is Standard Deviation (Sigma)?

Measure of how far you are from the mean.

If the situation is looking forward in time, it is most likely a …

planning function (Plan Quality Management)

If it is looking back in time at standards, it is most likely part of

If it is looking back in time at standards, it is most likely part of quality assurance (Manage Quality)

If it is looking back in time at results, it is most likely a part of

quality control (Control Quality)

What is "Control Quality" process?

Control Quality is the process of monitoring and recording results of executing the quality management activities in order to assess performance and ensure the project outputs are complete, correct, and meet customer expectations.

What are the inputs of "Control Quality" process?

.1 Project management plan .2 Project documents .3 Approved change requests .4 Deliverables .5 Work performance data .6 Enterprise environmental factors .7 Organizational process assets

What are the tools and techniques of "Control Quality" process?

.1 Data gathering .2 Data analysis .3 Inspection .4 Testing/product evaluations .5 Data representation .6 Meetings

What are the outputs of "Control Quality" process?

.1 Quality control measurements .2 Verified deliverables .3 Work performance information .4 Change requests .5 Project management plan updates .6 Project documents updates

Which component of project management plan is input for "Control Quality" process?

Which component of project management plan is input for "Control Quality" process? Quality management plan

Which project documents are input for "Control Quality" process?

Lessons learned register; Quality metrics; Test and evaluation documents

Control Quality process is performed to measure …

.. the completeness, compliance, and fitness for use of a product or service prior to user acceptance and final delivery.

In agile projects, the Control Quality activities may be performed by who and when?

in agile projects, the Control Quality activities may be performed by all team members throughout the project life cycle.

In waterfall model-based projects, the quality control activities are performed by who and when?

at specific times, toward the end of the project or phase, by specified team members.

Which "Control Quality" input contains data on product status such as observations, quality metrics, and measurements for technical performance?

Which "Control Quality" input contains data on product status such as observations, quality metrics, and measurements for technical performance?Work Performance Data

What are the organizational process assets that can influence the Control Quality process?

Quality standards and policies; Quality templates, for example, check sheets, checklists, etc. and; Issue and defect reporting procedures

Data-gathering techniques that can be used for "Control Quality" process?

Checklists; Checksheets; Statistical Sampling; Questionnaires and surveys

What is inspection?

An inspection is the examination of a work product to determine if it conforms to documented standards

Inspections may be called ….

reviews, peer reviews, audits, or walkthroughs.

What is the intent of testing?

The intent of testing is to find errors, defects, bugs, or other nonconformance problems in the product or service

What is suggested to identify nonconformance problems and to reduce the cost of fixing the nonconforming components?

What is suggested to identify nonconformance problems and to reduce the cost of fixing the nonconforming components? Early Testing

Give examples for software testing?

For example, software testing may include unit testing, integration testing, black-box, white-box, interface testing, regression testing, Alpha testing, etc.

What are the Data representation techniques that can be used for "Control Quality" process?

Cause-and-Effect Diagrams; Control Charts; Histograms; Scatter Diagrams